The Different Types of Computer Malware

Posted: September 1, 2012 in Articles
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Computer VirusesBrute force attacks – the so-called attack by the “brute force”. Typically, users use simple passwords, such as “123”, “admin”, etc. These and enjoy computer hackers, who with the help of special calculates the Trojans to penetrate the network password brute – based embedded in the program password dictionary or generate a random sequence of characters.

Keyloggers – kind of Trojans, whose main function is to capture user input via the keyboard. The objects of the abduction are personal and network passwords, logins, credit card details and other personal information.

Backdoors – programs that provide input into the system or receiving the privileged function (mode), bypassing the existing system of authority. Often used to circumvent existing security system. Hatches do not infect files, but registers itself in the registry, thus modifying the registry keys.

Sniffing – a type of network attacks, also called “passive listening to the network.” Unauthorized monitoring network and monitoring of data produced by a special non-malicious program – packet sniffer, which intercepts all network packet domain, followed by observation. Intercepted sniffer such data can be used by hackers to infiltrate the network of legal rights fake user.

Pharming – a relatively new type of online fraud. Pharming technology allow you to change DNS (Domain Name System) records, or records in the file HOSTS. When a user visits a legitimate, from his point of view, the page is redirected to a fake page created to gather confidential information. Most of these pages replace pages of banks – both offline and online.

Time bombs – a type of logic bombs, covert operation in which the module is determined by time.

DoS-attacks – or a Denial of Service. Popular among malicious type of network attack, bordering on terrorism, is to send a large number of service requests to a server in order to launch its failure. When a certain number of queries (server’s hardware capabilities), the latter can not cope with such requests, which leads to a denial of service. Typically, such an attack is preceded by spoofing. DoS-attacks have become a widely used tool of intimidation and blackmail competitors.

Mail bombs – one of the simplest types of network attacks. Attacker sent to a computer or a company mail server is one huge message, or many (tens of thousands) of e-mail messages, which leads to a system breakdown. In the anti-virus products Dr.Web for a special mechanism to protect against such attacks.

Spoofing – type of network attack is to obtain fraudulently access to the network by simulating the connection. Used to circumvent the access control based on IP addresses, as well as for the growing momentum now masking false sites under their legal counterparts, or just as legitimate businesses.

Vishing – Internet-fraud, a type of phishing is to use for malicious purposes «war diallers» (auto-dialers) and the possibilities of the Internet Telephony (VoIP) for identity theft, such as passwords, bank details and ID cards etc. Potential victims receive phone calls purporting to be from legitimate organizations in which they are asked to type the phone, smart-phone or PDA passwords, PIN-codes and other personal information to be used later for stealing money from the account of the victim and other crimes .

Zombies – small computer programs carried by the network and computer worms. Program zombie install themselves in the infected system and wait for further instructions to act.

Rootkit – malicious software designed to intercept system functions (API) in order to hide its presence in the system.

In addition, Rootkit processes may mask other programs, registry keys, folders, files. Rootkit distributed as standalone programs or as additional components in other malware – software-hatches (backdoor), worms and so on.

Of its operating principles Rootkit conventionally divided into two groups: User Mode Rootkits (UMR) – the so-called Rootkit, running in user mode and Kernel Mode Rootkit (KMR) – the so-called Rootkit, running in kernel mode.

The work is based on the interception of UMR library functions the user mode, and the work is based on the KMR mounted in the driver that intercepts functions at the level of the system kernel, which greatly complicates its detection and removal.

Trojan Horses (Trojans) – malicious programs that contain hidden module performing unauthorized actions on the computer. These actions will not necessarily be destructive, but they are always directed to the detriment of the user. The name of this type of attack comes from the well-known legend of the wooden statue of a horse used by the Greeks to infiltrate the city of Troy.

Trojans-Vandals substitutes a startup programs, performs its functions or emulate such performance while producing some malicious actions (delete files, destroy directories, format disks, send passwords or other sensitive information stored on the user’s PC) . Some Trojans contain a mechanism to update their components from the Internet.

Defacement – distortion of the web pages. Type of computer vandalism, sometimes being a hacker fun, and sometimes a means of expressing political views. Distortion can be made in any part of the site or experienced a complete replacement of the existing site pages (usually home).

Logic bombs – kind of Trojan horse – hidden modules, embedded in the previously developed and widely used program. Are a means of computer sabotage.
Such a module is harmless to a particular event, the occurrence of which it works (pressing user defined keyboard buttons, change to a file or a certain date or time).

Scamming – from the English “scamming”, which means “a scam”, a type of online fraud. Is to attract customers alleged marriage agencies (actually scam agencies) for the purpose of luring them for money marriage scams.

Phishing – Internet-fraud, is used for stealing personal confidential data such as passwords, bank details and ID cards, etc. Using spamming or worms are sent to potential victims of fraudulent letters purporting to be from legitimate organizations in which they are asked to visit phony “site” of the institution, and confirm the passwords, PIN-codes and other personal information to be used later for stealing money from the victim’s account and for other crimes.

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