Reasons for the success of remote attacks on the Internet

Posted: September 15, 2012 in Articles
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Hackers attackThe Internet is a distributed computing system (CS), the infrastructure which is well known and well described in various literature. Therefore the reasons for the success of remote attacks on distributed Sun may be projected on the Internet and make a conclusion about the existence of the network of significant gaps in security, which are based on reason. The attentive reader, studying the previous sections have probably mentally implemented projection and pointed out how the shortcomings inherent in the abstract distributed CS easily detected in real WAN – Internet.

  • The absence of a dedicated communication channel between objects on the Internet

Global network can not be built on the principle of direct communication between objects in the system, that is not possible for every object to provide a dedicated channel to communicate with any other system. Therefore, the Internet connection is through a series of routers, and therefore, the message passes through a large number of intermediate sub-networks can be intercepted. Also connected to the Internet a great number of local Ethernet-network topology using “common rail”. In networks with a topology simple software intercepts all messages in the network. However, this weakness is common rather than the Internet, and Ethernet.

  • Lack of identification and authentication of objects and subjects of the Internet

In the Internet in key exchange protocols identification and authentication of objects is virtually nonexistent. Thus, in the application protocol FTP and TELNET user names and passwords are transmitted over the network in the form of open unencrypted messages. In the current standard IPv4 network layer protocol – IP – does not provide any identification and authentication of objects (except for IP-address, the authenticity of which, in turn, can not be confirmed). All the problems with the identification of the developers have shifted to the next – the transport – level. This layer is responsible for the UDP and TCP. UDP protocol does not contain any additional identifying information, but is used for control (!) ICMP-messages. Thus, the only protocol prize-consistent to ensure security in Internet, protocol is TCP, the interaction with which is the virtual circuit.

  • Interaction sites on the Internet without establishing a virtual channel

One of the features of the Internet serves the interaction of objects without creating a virtual channel. It is obvious that the developers were planning a similar interaction in the event that it is not critical to the system and is not required to ensure its safety. However, as in the case of control ICMP-message (which certainly can not be called is not critical for the system!) And in the case of DNS-queries use communication without VC. This leads to the possibility of the UA.

  • The use of unstable algorithms identify objects when creating a virtual TCP-connection

As already stated, the TCP is the only transport protocol underlying the Internet, the function of which lies connection protection. However, use of a simple algorithm to identify objects when creating a virtual TCP-channel, especially if used in time-sensitive NOS simplest laws generation TCP-identifiers (ISN), negate all attempts to identification of the channel and the objects in their interactions over TCP.

  • Inability to control the virtual communication channels between the objects on the Internet

In the current standard on the Internet can not provide control over network connections, since one subject of networking is possible to take an unlimited number of channels with a remote object and remain anonymous. Because of this, any host on the Internet can be completely paralyzed.

  • Lack of opportunities in the Internet control message routing

Inability to control the Internet for virtual channels in the network is caused by the lack of control over the message routing, namely, in the current IPv4 standard is impossible for the host who came post to determine the path through which it has passed, therefore, can not verify the authenticity of the sender.

  • The absence of complete information on the Internet to its object and, therefore, compelled to use remote search algorithms

Obviously, the global network can not be achieved at every facility availability of information on any other site in the network. Therefore, as mentioned earlier, you need to use potentially dangerous remote search algorithms. On the Internet, used by at least two algorithms for remote search: ARP and DNS. Remote attacks against these protocols.

  • The absence of basic cryptographic protocols Internet messages

The existing basic protocols of TCP / IP, interoperable at the network, circuit-level, does not provide the ability to encrypt messages, but it is clear that adding it to the TCP protocol is not difficult. The developers of these basic protocols decided to shift the task of encryption for higher-level protocols, such as crafts. In this case, the basic application-level protocols (FTP, TELNET, HTTP, etc.) also do not provide any encryption of messages. Only recently, a popular application protocol SSL, embedded in Netscape Navigator, which allows both securely encrypt a message, and confirm its authenticity.

In the conclusion to this article I would like to note that all the above reasons that allow remote attacks on network connections, making the Internet unsafe. Therefore, in principle, all the users of the network use its services at your own risk and may be attacked at any moment. At present, users on the Internet for the most part because of the absolute lack of understanding of sources and real threats of force are in constant anxiety. This resembles the viral boom, which was in the early 90’s. This chapter was designed to explain and demonstrate the coming of the Internet possible threats and their causes.

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